India- The Land of Ancient Civilisation

Indian history begins with the birth of Indus Valley and the Aryans, they are described as the Pre-Vedic and Vedic ages. Hence, Hinduism arose in the Vedic period.

The much known Indus Valley Civilisation started in the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra river valleys which are now a part of Pakistan, north-western parts of India, Afghanistan and Turkmenistan. It was also known as the Harappan Civilisation that lasted from 3300 BC to 1700 BC. The ruins of Harappa describe the Narrative of Various Journeys in Balochistan, Afghanistan and Punjab. Most parts of the city Mohenjodaro has been unearthed during the excavation campaigns. But, after the partition of India, the areas of the civilisation has been divided between India and Pakistan.

The Vedic Period refers to that time when the Vedic Sanskrit texts were composed in India. This is when the society emerged. This civilisation was between 1500BC and 500BC on the Indo-Gangetic Plains of Indian Subcontinent. The civilasation laid the foundation of Hinduism.

The Vedic Texts: linguistically, the texts in Hindu Vedic Civilisation can be classified into five branches. They are:

Rigvedic: known to be the oldest text of Vedic Period. The time this was writen is coincided with the Indus Valley Civilisation.

Mantra Language: includes the time of the compilation of mantra and prose language of the Atharvaveda, the Rigveda Khilani, the Samaveda Samhita and the mantras of Yajurveda.This time period coincided with the Early Iron Age in north-western India and the Black and Red Ware Culture.

Samhita Prose: is the compilation of Vedic canon.

Brahmana Prose: signifies Brahmanas proper of the four Vedas.

Sutra Language: is the last division of the Vedic Sanskrit that can be traced upto 500BC. During this time, a major portion of Srauta Sutras, the Grihya Sutras and some Upanishads were composed.

The Vedic Age was followed by the golden age of Hinduism and the empires.


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